prof. Mgr. Stanislav Pekár, Ph.D.
prof. Mgr. Stano Pekár, Ph.D.
Organic farming system of winter wheat was investigated in Slovakia over three years, 1995-1997. The system was carried out on a small scale (four plots of 50 m'). Neither pesticides nor inorganic fertilisers were applied. Effect of two treatments, ploughing and previous crop, on the community of pests and natural enemies was surveyed. There were two types of ploughing (shallow and deep) made in autumn before sowing. As previous crops, silage-maize and alfalfa were used each season. The effect of all factors was analysed by multivariate method, redundancy analysis (RDA) and Monte Carlo permutation to assess statistical significance. During three years, 37 taxons of pests and 27 taxons of natural enemies were recorded. The results of RDA showed that the community of insects (pests and natural enemies) was mainly influenced by temporal variation. The highest abundance of all insects was observed in 1.996T. he effect of the two treatments on the community of pests and natural enemies was less obvious. Pests were found to be significantly more influenced by ploughingthan by previous crop. Most of pests occurred more abundantly on plots with shallow ploughing and on plots after maize. Abundance of natural enemies were, however, significantly affected by previous crop. Majority of them were more abundant on plots after maize than after alfalfa. Ploughing had only marginally significant effect on natural enemies that were more abundant on shallow ploughed plots. Both ploughing and previous crop had only negligible effect on species diversity of natural enemies.
Gallo J. & Pekár S. (1999): Winter wheat pests and their natural enemies under organic farming system in Slovakia: Effect of ploughing and previous crop. Anz. Schädlingskunde 72: 31–36.