Kvadráty: 7068 7162 7161 7166 7165 7266
  Nálezy podle období  
Dysderidae 0-19001901-19501951-20002001+
Dysdera hungarica Kulczyński, 1897 Není ohrožený 13× 17×

Dysdera hungarica Kulczyński, 1897

České jménošestiočka uherská
Stupeň ohroženíNení ohrožený
Nálezy17 nálezů, 6 kvadrátů
První nález 1996, M. Matuška, Bryja, Svatoň et al. 2005
Poslední nález 2017 , Ondřej Horňák
Areál rozšířeníEuropean - ME (Gr., Az.) [Pan.]
Fytogeografická oblast
Thermo (Preference: Vysoká)
Západní část českého Termofytika a celé moravské Termofytikum. Oblast extrazonální teplomilné vegetace a květeny v rámci temperátního pásma, kde převládají nelesní společenstva.
Původnost stanovišť
climax (Preference: Vysoká)
Klimaxová stanoviště, která jsou minimálně narušena činností člověka: původní horská stanoviště, původní a přirozené lesy, mokřady, rašeliniště, skalní stepi a lesostepi, váté písky, kamenité sutě, skály apod.
Vlhkost stanovišť
dry
Suchá. Vřesoviště, suchá pole, skalní lesostepi, bory, jižně exponované okraje lesů.
very dry
Velmi suchá. Písčiny, skalní stepi, osluněné povrchy skal a kamenitých sutí.
Stratum
Ground layer (Preference: Vysoká)
Půdní povrch. Půdní povrch, prostory pod kameny, prostory v detritu a mechu.
Osvětlení stanovišť
open
Většinou bez vegetace či s nízkou vegetací, kde osvětlení zasahuje až k půdnímu povrchu: holé skály a sutě, štěrkové lavice, stěny budov, písčiny, skalní stepi, kosené louky, pole, vřesoviště, stanoviště nad horní hranicí lesa, rašeliniště.
Hojnost výskytu
very rare
Velmi vzácný. Druh vyskytující se na velmi malém počtu mapových polí. Výskyt je obvykle vázán na jediné pohoří či na unikátní stanoviště. I počet získaných jedinců je většinou velmi malý.
Nadm. výška200-400

Literatura

 © Oto Zimmermann
The studied locality, i.e. Klánovický les Forest is situated on the edge of Prague, one of the most polluted areas in the Czech Republic. Thanks to large area the forest acts as an isolation from agrochemicals, thus allowing the existence of some habitats sensitive to eutrophisation, in particular peat-bogs, heaths, bare sandy soils, and Molinia meadows. The habitats harbour unusually high species diversity of spiders and harvestmen: the author recorded 286 spider and 11 harvestman species there, which is approximately one third of the Czech fauna. Sixty one of them are red-listed in the Czech Republic. Peat-bog linyphiid Saaristoa abnormis, and steppe lycosid Alopecosa schmidti and linyphiid Panamomops inconspicuus are listed as endangered. Local small peat-bogs offer suitable conditions for disappearing lycosids Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata, Pirata piscatorius and Piratula uliginosa, while heaths harbour the disappearing Oxyopes ramosus. Water spider Argyroneta aquatica has recently been found in small pools in ditches along the railway. Littoral vegetation is inhabited by Theridiosoma gemmosum and the jumping spider Calositticus floricola. Disturbed soil surface of wet meadows harbours the wolf spider Arctosa leopardus. Some species have recently appeared at the site, for example Dysdera hungarica, the harvestman Nemastoma bidentatum sparsum or the crab spider Synema globosum. The first two were probably introduced there by man, the latter probably expands due to climate change. The author suggests to keep these habitats without woody vegetation to protect local high species diversity there.

 © Oto Zimmermann
Nine species of the genus Dysdera were found to occur in central Europe: D. adriatica Kulczyński 1897, Dysdera crocata Koch 1838, D. dubrovninnii Deeleman-Reinhold 1988, Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer 1802), Dysdera ninnii Canestrini 1868, Dysdera hungarica Kulczyński 1897, D. lantosquensis Simon 1882, D. longirostris Doblika 1853, and D. taurica Charitonov 1956. Two species, D. dubrovninnii and D. lantosquensis, are newly recorded from central Europe. The original description of D. hombergi (Scopoli 1763), the name used for a common species of the genus Harpactea, probably refers to Dysdera ninnii. We retain the name Dysdera ninnii as a nomen protectum. Dysdera hamulata Kulczyński 1897 appears to be a junior synonym of D. maurusia Thorell 1873. This North African species probably does not occur in central Europe, and a previous record from Slovakia is probably based on mislabeled material. A review of all species of Dysdera named from outside the Palearctic region demonstrated that D. australiensis Rainbow 1900 and D. magna Keyserling 1877 are junior synonyms of Dysdera crocata, and that D. bicolor Tatzanovski 1874 and D. solers Walckenaer 1837 are erroneously placed in the genus Dysdera; the former is likely to be an oonopid and the latter a caponiid. In central Europe, Dysdera spiders prefer xerothermic forests, particularly sites enriched by calcium. All species probably have biennal life-cycles. The karyotype of males of seven species were examined, and diploid chromosome numbers were found to be extraordinarily variable, ranging from 9 (Dysdera crocata) to 40 (D. longirostris). Karyotypes consist of holocentric chromosomes.

 © Oto Zimmermann

The dietary specialization in a woodlouse-eating spider Dysdera hungarica Kulczyñski (Araneae: Dysderidae) is studied using two types of laboratory experiments. In the first experiment, the rate of development of spiderlings reared on one of three diets: pure woodlice [composed of two species Oniscus asellus Linnaeus and Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille)], pure flies (Drosophila melanogaster Meigen), and a mixed woodlouse-fly diet, is studied. Spiders develop significantly faster on the woodlice-containing diets (i.e. pure woodlice and mixed diet) than on the fly diet. In the second experiment, the prey-choice for two woodlice species (O. asellus and A. vulgare) and a fly (D. melanogaster) is investigated. Dysdera hungarica spiders capture significantly more often flies than woodlice. These contrasting results reveal the different value of developmental and behavioural experiments. The dietary studies are assumed to provide better evidence of specialization than behavioural experiments, which might be misleading due to unnatural conditions. It is concluded that Dysdera hungarica is a metabolically adapted woodlice specialist. The present study thus provides the first evidence of nutritional specialization on woodlice.



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Statistiky

Dle měsíce v roce


Dle nadmořské výšky


Dle metody sběru (17 použitých nálezů)
Dysdera hungarica Kulczyński, 1897 ESSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zemní past01407
Individuální sběr0303
Neurčeno0407
 SamciSamiceMláďataNálezy

Dle biotopu (16 použitých nálezů)
Dysdera hungarica Kulczyński, 1897 ESSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Polní biotopy0101
Obhospodařované pozemky0101
Neurčeno09010
Těžebny písku a jiných nezpevněných hornin0401
Lesostepní doubravy0101
Skalní stepi na vápenci0101
Slaniska0301
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