Kvadráty: 7162 7166 7165 7161
  Nálezy podle období
Dysderidae 0-19001901-19501951-20002001-2018
Dysdera hungarica Kulczyński, 1897 Není ohrožený 4x 9x 13x

Dysdera hungarica Kulczyński, 1897

České jménošestiočka uherská
Stupeň ohroženíNení ohrožený
Nálezy13 nálezů, 4 kvadrátů
První nález 1996, M. Matuška, Bryja, Svatoň et al. 2005
Poslední nález 2014 , Ondřej Machač
Areál rozšířeníEuropean - ME (Gr., Az.) [Pan.]
Fytogeografická oblastThermo
Původnost stanovišťclimax
Vlhkost stanovišťvery dry, dry
StratumGround layer
Osvětlení stanovišťopen
Hojnost výskytuvery rare
Nadm. výška250


© Ota Zimmermann
Nine species of the genus Dysdera were found to occur in central Europe: D. adriatica Kulczyński 1897, Dysdera crocata Koch 1838, D. dubrovninnii Deeleman-Reinhold 1988, Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer 1802), Dysdera ninnii Canestrini 1868, Dysdera hungarica Kulczyński 1897, Dysdera lantosquensis Simon 1882, D. longirostris Doblika 1853, and D. taurica Charitonov 1956. Two species, D. dubrovninnii and Dysdera lantosquensis, are newly recorded from central Europe. The original description of D. hombergi (Scopoli 1763), the name used for a common species of the genus Harpactea, probably refers to Dysdera ninnii. We retain the name Dysdera ninnii as a nomen protectum. Dysdera hamulata Kulczyński 1897 appears to be a junior synonym of D. maurusia Thorell 1873. This North African species probably does not occur in central Europe, and a previous record from Slovakia is probably based on mislabeled material. A review of all species of Dysdera named from outside the Palearctic region demonstrated that D. australiensis Rainbow 1900 and D. magna Keyserling 1877 are junior synonyms of Dysdera crocata, and that D. bicolor Tatzanovski 1874 and D. solers Walckenaer 1837 are erroneously placed in the genus Dysdera; the former is likely to be an oonopid and the latter a caponiid. In central Europe, Dysdera spiders prefer xerothermic forests, particularly sites enriched by calcium. All species probably have biennal life-cycles. The karyotype of males of seven species were examined, and diploid chromosome numbers were found to be extraordinarily variable, ranging from 9 (Dysdera crocata) to 40 (D. longirostris). Karyotypes consist of holocentric chromosomes.

© Ota Zimmermann

The dietary specialization in a woodlouse-eating spider Dysdera hungarica Kulczyñski (Araneae: Dysderidae) is studied using two types of laboratory experiments. In the first experiment, the rate of development of spiderlings reared on one of three diets: pure woodlice [composed of two species Oniscus asellus Linnaeus and Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille)], pure flies (Drosophila melanogaster Meigen), and a mixed woodlouse-fly diet, is studied. Spiders develop significantly faster on the woodlice-containing diets (i.e. pure woodlice and mixed diet) than on the fly diet. In the second experiment, the prey-choice for two woodlice species (O. asellus and A. vulgare) and a fly (D. melanogaster) is investigated. Dysdera hungarica spiders capture significantly more often flies than woodlice. These contrasting results reveal the different value of developmental and behavioural experiments. The dietary studies are assumed to provide better evidence of specialization than behavioural experiments, which might be misleading due to unnatural conditions. It is concluded that Dysdera hungarica is a metabolically adapted woodlice specialist. The present study thus provides the first evidence of nutritional specialization on woodlice.


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