Nálezy podle období
Dysderidae 0-19001901-19501951-20002001-2018
Dysdera cechica Dysdera cechica Řezáč, 2018 Není ohrožený 1x 1x 31x 7x 40x
Dysdera crocata Dysdera crocata C. L. Koch, 1838 Není ohrožený 2x 2x
Dysdera erythrina Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) Není ohrožený 16x 6x 137x 41x 200x
Dysdera hungarica Dysdera hungarica Kulczyński, 1897 Není ohrožený 4x 9x 13x
Dysdera lantosquensis Dysdera lantosquensis Simon, 1882 Není ohrožený 28x 28x
Dysdera moravica Dysdera moravica Řezáč, 2014 Téměř ohrožený 27x 8x 35x
Dysdera ninnii Dysdera ninnii Canestrini, 1868

Literatura

© Oto Zimmermann
The studied locality, i.e. Klánovický les Forest is situated on the edge of Prague, one of the most polluted areas in the Czech Republic. Thanks to large area the forest acts as an isolation from agrochemicals, thus allowing the existence of some habitats sensitive to eutrophisation, in particular peat-bogs, heaths, bare sandy soils, and Molinia meadows. The habitats harbour unusually high species diversity of spiders and
harvestmen: the author recorded 286 spider and 11 harvestman species there, which is approximately one third of the Czech fauna. Sixty one of them are red-listed in the Czech Republic. Peat-bog linyphiid Saaristoa abnormis, and steppe lycosid Alopecosa schmidti and linyphiid Panamomops inconspicuus are listed as endangered. Local small peat-bogs offer suitable conditions for disappearing lycosids Hygrolycosa
rubrofasciata, Pirata piscatorius and Piratula uliginosa, while heaths harbour the disappearing Oxyopes ramosus. Water spider Argyroneta aquatica has recently been found in small pools in ditches along the railway. Littoral vegetation is inhabited by Theridiosoma gemmosum and the jumping spider Calositticus floricola. Disturbed soil surface of wet meadows harbours the wolf spider Arctosa leopardus. Some species have recently appeared at the site, for example Dysdera hungarica, the harvestman Nemastoma bidentatum sparsum or the crab spider Synema globosum. The first two were probably introduced there by man, the latter probably expands due to climate change. The author suggests to keep these habitats without woody vegetation to protect local high species diversity there.


© Ondřej Machač
Pavouci České republiky; Druhy rodu Dysdera (Dysderidae) v Česku; Pholcus alticeps na severozápadě České republiky; Díky osobnímu automobilu; Výprava za stepníky a teplomilnými křižáky na jižní Moravu; Významné nálezy pavouků z ČR IV. / Remarkable records of spiders from Czechia IV.; Inventarizace 2017; Hrabalky (Pompilidae) – specialisté na lov pavouků II: rod Cryptocheilus; Jak dlouho vydrží Dolomedes pod vodou?; Rozloučení se Zdeňkem; Říkali jsme mu „haldový expert“; Zoologické dny Praha 2018; Arachnologická exkurze Litovelské Pomoraví; Česká bibliografie 2018; Britská bibliografie – The Newsletter 140 a 141; Pokyny pro autory

© Oto Zimmermann

The genus Dysdera Latreille, 1804, a species-rich group of spiders that includes specialised predators of woodlice, contains several complexes of morphologically similar sibling species. Here we investigate species limits in the Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) complex by integrating phenotypic, cytogenetic and molecular data, and use this information to gain further knowledge on its origin and evolution. We describe 16 new species and redescribe four poorly known species belonging to this clade. The distribution of most of the species in the complex is limited to southern France and the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula. The species studied do not show any obvious differences in habitat preference, and some of them even occur sympatrically at certain sites. They probably feed on the same type of prey as they readily capture woodlice. On the other hand, they differ in body size, mouthparts shape, sculpturing of carapace, morphology of the copulatory organs, karyotype and DNA sequences. Experimental interspecific mating showed a partial precopulatory behavioural barrier between Dysdera erythrina and Dysdera cechica, sp. nov. Our data suggest that karyotype evolution of the complex included chromosome fusions and fissions as well as translocations (between autosomes as well as autosomes and sex chromosomes). We hypothesise that chromosome rearrangements generating reproductive incompatibility played a primary role in speciation within Dysdera complexes. Dysdera spiders are poor dispersers, and their original distribution areas (forested areas in the Mediterranean) were repeatedly fragmented during Quarternary climatic oscillations, facilitating integration of chromosome rearrangements into karyotypes by genetic drift. Sympatric occurrence of closely related species may have been promoted by prey segregation as suggested by differentiation in body size in co-occurring species. The following new species are described: D. catalonica, sp. nov., Dysdera cechica, D. dolanskyi, sp. nov., D. fabrorum, sp. nov., D. garrafensis, sp. nov., D. graia, sp. nov., D. kropfi, sp. nov., D. minairo, sp. nov., D. portsensis, sp. nov., D. pradesensis, sp. nov., D. pyrenaica, sp. nov., D. quindecima, sp. nov., D. septima, sp. nov., D. stahlavskyi, sp. nov., D. tredecima, sp. nov. and D. undecima, sp. nov.



© Oto Zimmermann
Méně známé druhy pavouků – Frontinellina frutetorum; Pirata von Noldenteich; Křižák Neoscona adianta za humny!; Ještě Porrhomma; Jak je to s původem křižáka Argiope bruennichi v Česku?; Rytířský souboj; Arachnologická exkurze – jižní Morava 2015; Ocenění arachnologové; Aktualizace rolí v České arachnologické společnosti; Konference; Česká bibliografie; Britská bibliografie; Inventarizace 2014

© Oto Zimmermann
Nine species of the genus Dysdera were found to occur in central Europe: D. adriatica Kulczyński 1897, Dysdera crocata Koch 1838, D. dubrovninnii Deeleman-Reinhold 1988, Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer 1802), Dysdera ninnii Canestrini 1868, Dysdera hungarica Kulczyński 1897, Dysdera lantosquensis Simon 1882, D. longirostris Doblika 1853, and D. taurica Charitonov 1956. Two species, D. dubrovninnii and Dysdera lantosquensis, are newly recorded from central Europe. The original description of D. hombergi (Scopoli 1763), the name used for a common species of the genus Harpactea, probably refers to Dysdera ninnii. We retain the name Dysdera ninnii as a nomen protectum. Dysdera hamulata Kulczyński 1897 appears to be a junior synonym of D. maurusia Thorell 1873. This North African species probably does not occur in central Europe, and a previous record from Slovakia is probably based on mislabeled material. A review of all species of Dysdera named from outside the Palearctic region demonstrated that D. australiensis Rainbow 1900 and D. magna Keyserling 1877 are junior synonyms of Dysdera crocata, and that D. bicolor Tatzanovski 1874 and D. solers Walckenaer 1837 are erroneously placed in the genus Dysdera; the former is likely to be an oonopid and the latter a caponiid. In central Europe, Dysdera spiders prefer xerothermic forests, particularly sites enriched by calcium. All species probably have biennal life-cycles. The karyotype of males of seven species were examined, and diploid chromosome numbers were found to be extraordinarily variable, ranging from 9 (Dysdera crocata) to 40 (D. longirostris). Karyotypes consist of holocentric chromosomes.

© Oto Zimmermann

The dietary specialization in a woodlouse-eating spider Dysdera hungarica Kulczyñski (Araneae: Dysderidae) is studied using two types of laboratory experiments. In the first experiment, the rate of development of spiderlings reared on one of three diets: pure woodlice [composed of two species Oniscus asellus Linnaeus and Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille)], pure flies (Drosophila melanogaster Meigen), and a mixed woodlouse-fly diet, is studied. Spiders develop significantly faster on the woodlice-containing diets (i.e. pure woodlice and mixed diet) than on the fly diet. In the second experiment, the prey-choice for two woodlice species (O. asellus and A. vulgare) and a fly (D. melanogaster) is investigated. Dysdera hungarica spiders capture significantly more often flies than woodlice. These contrasting results reveal the different value of developmental and behavioural experiments. The dietary studies are assumed to provide better evidence of specialization than behavioural experiments, which might be misleading due to unnatural conditions. It is concluded that Dysdera hungarica is a metabolically adapted woodlice specialist. The present study thus provides the first evidence of nutritional specialization on woodlice.



Fotografie

Statistiky

Dle měsíce v roce


Dle nadmořské výšky


Dle metody sběru (189 použitých nálezů)
Zemní pastSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera cechica Řezáč, 2018 20 12 11 19
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) 60 47 4 79
Dysdera hungarica Kulczyński, 1897 0 8 0 3
Dysdera lantosquensis Simon, 1882 13 22 5 18
Dysdera moravica Řezáč, 2014 9 10 0 15
Individuální sběrSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera cechica Řezáč, 2018 2 4 0 6
Dysdera crocata C. L. Koch, 1838 1 1 1 2
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) 7 14 4 23
Dysdera hungarica Kulczyński, 1897 0 3 0 3
Dysdera lantosquensis Simon, 1882 0 1 0 1
Dysdera moravica Řezáč, 2014 0 5 0 5
ProsevSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera cechica Řezáč, 2018 0 1 0 1
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) 3 2 0 6
Dysdera moravica Řezáč, 2014 1 0 0 1
SmykSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera cechica Řezáč, 2018 2 0 0 2
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) 1 1 2 5
 SamciSamiceMláďataNálezy

Dle biotopu (133 použitých nálezů)
Xerotermy na jiných podkladechSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera cechica Řezáč, 2018 1 0 0 1
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) 7 16 0 15
Dysdera moravica Řezáč, 2014 1 1 0 2
Dubo-habrové háje a acidofilní doubravySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera cechica Řezáč, 2018 8 9 0 9
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) 15 1 2 4
Dysdera moravica Řezáč, 2014 2 1 0 3
Skalní lesostepi, šípákové a teplomilné doubravySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) 12 7 0 16
Kamenité sutěSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera cechica Řezáč, 2018 0 0 0 1
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) 3 2 0 5
Dysdera moravica Řezáč, 2014 2 6 0 4
Skalní stepi na vápencových podkladechSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) 4 6 0 8
Dysdera hungarica Kulczyński, 1897 0 1 0 1
Přirozené lesySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) 0 2 0 2
Dysdera moravica Řezáč, 2014 3 4 0 7
Smrkové monokulturySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) 2 4 0 6
Suťové a roklinové lesySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera cechica Řezáč, 2018 1 0 0 1
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) 2 2 0 4
Květnaté bučinySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) 2 1 0 3
Skály nižších a středních výšekSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera moravica Řezáč, 2014 0 3 0 3
LesySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera cechica Řezáč, 2018 0 1 0 1
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) 2 0 0 2
lesostepní doubravySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera cechica Řezáč, 2018 3 0 0 1
Dysdera hungarica Kulczyński, 1897 0 1 0 1
Dysdera moravica Řezáč, 2014 1 0 0 1
Trnkové křovinySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) 2 0 0 2
Lesní okrajeSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera cechica Řezáč, 2018 1 0 0 1
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) 1 1 0 1
Ovocné sadySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera cechica Řezáč, 2018 0 1 0 1
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) 0 2 0 1
Reliktní bory na skalních podkladechSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) 2 0 0 2
Suťové lesySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) 3 1 0 1
Dysdera lantosquensis Simon, 1882 0 1 0 1
Křoviny a skupiny stromů mimo lesSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera cechica Řezáč, 2018 3 1 0 2
Acidofilní teplomilné doubravySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera cechica Řezáč, 2018 1 0 0 1
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) 0 1 0 1
Interiéry budovSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera cechica Řezáč, 2018 0 1 0 1
Dysdera crocata C. L. Koch, 1838 0 0 1 1
Xerotermní travinobylinná společenstvaSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) 0 2 0 2
KamenolomSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) 1 1 0 1
pískovnySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera hungarica Kulczyński, 1897 0 4 0 1
SlaniskaSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera hungarica Kulczyński, 1897 0 3 0 1
skalní stepi na jiných hornináchSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) 1 1 0 1
suché loukySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera lantosquensis Simon, 1882 2 1 0 1
RuderálySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) 0 1 0 1
Kultury jehličnanůSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) 1 0 0 1
interiéry budovSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera crocata C. L. Koch, 1838 1 1 0 1
Vřesoviště se smilkou, vřesem, borůvkouSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera cechica Řezáč, 2018 2 0 0 1
výsadby listnáčůSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) 2 2 0 1
Floristicky pestré křovinySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera cechica Řezáč, 2018 0 0 0 1
Horské buko-jedlové lesySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) 0 1 0 1
Karpatské dubohabřinySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera cechica Řezáč, 2018 3 2 0 1
Acidofilní borySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Dysdera cechica Řezáč, 2018 1 0 0 1
 SamciSamiceMláďataNálezy