Nálezy podle období
Dysderidae 0-19001901-19501951-20002001-2021
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) Není ohrožený 16x 6x 137x 52x 211x

Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802)

České jménošestiočka rudá
Stupeň ohroženíNení ohrožený
Nálezy211 nálezů, 48 kvadrátů
První nález 1859, F. Prach, Prach 1866
Poslední nález 2021 , Pavel Moravec, Petr Veselý
Areál rozšířeníEuropean (Gr.) (Af.
Fytogeografická oblastThermo, (Meso)
Původnost stanovišťclimax, (artificial)
Vlhkost stanovišťvery dry, dry
StratumGround layer
Osvětlení stanovišť(open, semi-open), partly shaded, shaded
Hojnost výskytuscarce probably
Nadm. výška200-500-700

Literatura

 © Oto Zimmermann

The genus Dysdera Latreille, 1804, a species-rich group of spiders that includes specialised predators of woodlice, contains several complexes of morphologically similar sibling species. Here we investigate species limits in the Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) complex by integrating phenotypic, cytogenetic and molecular data, and use this information to gain further knowledge on its origin and evolution. We describe 16 new species and redescribe four poorly known species belonging to this clade. The distribution of most of the species in the complex is limited to southern France and the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula. The species studied do not show any obvious differences in habitat preference, and some of them even occur sympatrically at certain sites. They probably feed on the same type of prey as they readily capture woodlice. On the other hand, they differ in body size, mouthparts shape, sculpturing of carapace, morphology of the copulatory organs, karyotype and DNA sequences. Experimental interspecific mating showed a partial precopulatory behavioural barrier between Dysdera erythrina and Dysdera cechica, sp. nov. Our data suggest that karyotype evolution of the complex included chromosome fusions and fissions as well as translocations (between autosomes as well as autosomes and sex chromosomes). We hypothesise that chromosome rearrangements generating reproductive incompatibility played a primary role in speciation within Dysdera complexes. Dysdera spiders are poor dispersers, and their original distribution areas (forested areas in the Mediterranean) were repeatedly fragmented during Quarternary climatic oscillations, facilitating integration of chromosome rearrangements into karyotypes by genetic drift. Sympatric occurrence of closely related species may have been promoted by prey segregation as suggested by differentiation in body size in co-occurring species. The following new species are described: D. catalonica, sp. nov., Dysdera cechica, D. dolanskyi, sp. nov., D. fabrorum, sp. nov., D. garrafensis, sp. nov., D. graia, sp. nov., D. kropfi, sp. nov., D. minairo, sp. nov., D. portsensis, sp. nov., D. pradesensis, sp. nov., D. pyrenaica, sp. nov., D. quindecima, sp. nov., D. septima, sp. nov., D. stahlavskyi, sp. nov., D. tredecima, sp. nov. and D. undecima, sp. nov.



 © Oto Zimmermann
Méně známé druhy pavouků – Frontinellina frutetorum; Pirata von Noldenteich; Křižák Neoscona adianta za humny!; Ještě Porrhomma; Jak je to s původem křižáka Argiope bruennichi v Česku?; Rytířský souboj; Arachnologická exkurze – jižní Morava 2015; Ocenění arachnologové; Aktualizace rolí v České arachnologické společnosti; Konference; Česká bibliografie; Britská bibliografie; Inventarizace 2014

 © Oto Zimmermann
Nine species of the genus Dysdera were found to occur in central Europe: D. adriatica Kulczyński 1897, Dysdera crocata Koch 1838, D. dubrovninnii Deeleman-Reinhold 1988, Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer 1802), Dysdera ninnii Canestrini 1868, Dysdera hungarica Kulczyński 1897, Dysdera lantosquensis Simon 1882, D. longirostris Doblika 1853, and D. taurica Charitonov 1956. Two species, D. dubrovninnii and Dysdera lantosquensis, are newly recorded from central Europe. The original description of D. hombergi (Scopoli 1763), the name used for a common species of the genus Harpactea, probably refers to Dysdera ninnii. We retain the name Dysdera ninnii as a nomen protectum. Dysdera hamulata Kulczyński 1897 appears to be a junior synonym of D. maurusia Thorell 1873. This North African species probably does not occur in central Europe, and a previous record from Slovakia is probably based on mislabeled material. A review of all species of Dysdera named from outside the Palearctic region demonstrated that D. australiensis Rainbow 1900 and D. magna Keyserling 1877 are junior synonyms of Dysdera crocata, and that D. bicolor Tatzanovski 1874 and D. solers Walckenaer 1837 are erroneously placed in the genus Dysdera; the former is likely to be an oonopid and the latter a caponiid. In central Europe, Dysdera spiders prefer xerothermic forests, particularly sites enriched by calcium. All species probably have biennal life-cycles. The karyotype of males of seven species were examined, and diploid chromosome numbers were found to be extraordinarily variable, ranging from 9 (Dysdera crocata) to 40 (D. longirostris). Karyotypes consist of holocentric chromosomes.

Fotografie

Statistiky

Dle měsíce v roce


Dle nadmořské výšky


Dle metody sběru (211 použitých nálezů)
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) ESSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zemní past6073487
Individuální sběr717426
Prosev3206
Neurčeno104087
Smyk1125
 SamciSamiceMláďataNálezy

Dle biotopu (200 použitých nálezů)
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) ESSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Nehluboké podzemní prostory (pukliny, půdní horizonty)01105
Suché louky731018
Haldy a výsypky0101
Skalní stepi na vápenci4608
Dubohabřiny0101
Reliktní bory na skalách2103
Neurčeno16117108
Lesostepní doubravy128017
Skalní stepi na jiných horninách1101
Suťové a roklinové lesy5305
Výsadby listnáčů2201
Lesy2002
Suché doubravy15124
Ovocné sady s luční vegetací0201
Kamenité suti nižších poloh3205
Kamenolomy1101
Přirozené lesy0202
Ruderály0101
Výsadby jehličnanů3407
Bučiny nižších poloh2103
Suché křoviny2002
Horské bučiny0101
Lesní okraje1101
Xerotermní travinobylinná společenstva0202
 SamciSamiceMláďataNálezy