Records by time
Dysderidae 0-19001901-19501951-20002001-2018
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) Not endangered 16x 6x 137x 41x 200x

Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802)

Czech namešestiočka rudá
Threat levelNot endangered
Records200 nálezů, 44 kvadrátů
First record 1859, F. Prach, Prach 1866
Last record 2020 , Petr Veselý
Distribution areaEuropean (Gr.) (Af.
Phytogeographic areaThermo, (Meso)
Původnost stanovišťclimax, (artificial)
Humidityvery dry, dry
StratumGround layer
Osvětlení stanovišť(open, semi-open), partly shaded, shaded
Hojnost výskytuscarce probably


© Oto Zimmermann

The genus Dysdera Latreille, 1804, a species-rich group of spiders that includes specialised predators of woodlice, contains several complexes of morphologically similar sibling species. Here we investigate species limits in the Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) complex by integrating phenotypic, cytogenetic and molecular data, and use this information to gain further knowledge on its origin and evolution. We describe 16 new species and redescribe four poorly known species belonging to this clade. The distribution of most of the species in the complex is limited to southern France and the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula. The species studied do not show any obvious differences in habitat preference, and some of them even occur sympatrically at certain sites. They probably feed on the same type of prey as they readily capture woodlice. On the other hand, they differ in body size, mouthparts shape, sculpturing of carapace, morphology of the copulatory organs, karyotype and DNA sequences. Experimental interspecific mating showed a partial precopulatory behavioural barrier between Dysdera erythrina and Dysdera cechica, sp. nov. Our data suggest that karyotype evolution of the complex included chromosome fusions and fissions as well as translocations (between autosomes as well as autosomes and sex chromosomes). We hypothesise that chromosome rearrangements generating reproductive incompatibility played a primary role in speciation within Dysdera complexes. Dysdera spiders are poor dispersers, and their original distribution areas (forested areas in the Mediterranean) were repeatedly fragmented during Quarternary climatic oscillations, facilitating integration of chromosome rearrangements into karyotypes by genetic drift. Sympatric occurrence of closely related species may have been promoted by prey segregation as suggested by differentiation in body size in co-occurring species. The following new species are described: D. catalonica, sp. nov., Dysdera cechica, D. dolanskyi, sp. nov., D. fabrorum, sp. nov., D. garrafensis, sp. nov., D. graia, sp. nov., D. kropfi, sp. nov., D. minairo, sp. nov., D. portsensis, sp. nov., D. pradesensis, sp. nov., D. pyrenaica, sp. nov., D. quindecima, sp. nov., D. septima, sp. nov., D. stahlavskyi, sp. nov., D. tredecima, sp. nov. and D. undecima, sp. nov.

© Oto Zimmermann
Méně známé druhy pavouků – Frontinellina frutetorum; Pirata von Noldenteich; Křižák Neoscona adianta za humny!; Ještě Porrhomma; Jak je to s původem křižáka Argiope bruennichi v Česku?; Rytířský souboj; Arachnologická exkurze – jižní Morava 2015; Ocenění arachnologové; Aktualizace rolí v České arachnologické společnosti; Konference; Česká bibliografie; Britská bibliografie; Inventarizace 2014

© Oto Zimmermann
Nine species of the genus Dysdera were found to occur in central Europe: D. adriatica Kulczyński 1897, Dysdera crocata Koch 1838, D. dubrovninnii Deeleman-Reinhold 1988, Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer 1802), Dysdera ninnii Canestrini 1868, Dysdera hungarica Kulczyński 1897, Dysdera lantosquensis Simon 1882, D. longirostris Doblika 1853, and D. taurica Charitonov 1956. Two species, D. dubrovninnii and Dysdera lantosquensis, are newly recorded from central Europe. The original description of D. hombergi (Scopoli 1763), the name used for a common species of the genus Harpactea, probably refers to Dysdera ninnii. We retain the name Dysdera ninnii as a nomen protectum. Dysdera hamulata Kulczyński 1897 appears to be a junior synonym of D. maurusia Thorell 1873. This North African species probably does not occur in central Europe, and a previous record from Slovakia is probably based on mislabeled material. A review of all species of Dysdera named from outside the Palearctic region demonstrated that D. australiensis Rainbow 1900 and D. magna Keyserling 1877 are junior synonyms of Dysdera crocata, and that D. bicolor Tatzanovski 1874 and D. solers Walckenaer 1837 are erroneously placed in the genus Dysdera; the former is likely to be an oonopid and the latter a caponiid. In central Europe, Dysdera spiders prefer xerothermic forests, particularly sites enriched by calcium. All species probably have biennal life-cycles. The karyotype of males of seven species were examined, and diploid chromosome numbers were found to be extraordinarily variable, ranging from 9 (Dysdera crocata) to 40 (D. longirostris). Karyotypes consist of holocentric chromosomes.



By month

By altitude

By collecting method (113 used records)
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) ESMalesFemalesJuvenilesRecords
Zemní past6047479
Individuální sběr714423

By biotope (81 used records)
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) ESMalesFemalesJuvenilesRecords
Skalní stepi na vápencových podkladech4608
Xerotermy na jiných podkladech716015
Acidofilní teplomilné doubravy0101
skalní stepi na jiných horninách1101
Suťové lesy3101
výsadby listnáčů2201
Dubo-habrové háje a acidofilní doubravy15124
Reliktní bory na skalních podkladech2002
Ovocné sady0201
Kamenité sutě3205
Přirozené lesy0202
Kultury jehličnanů1001
Květnaté bučiny2103
Skalní lesostepi, šípákové a teplomilné doubravy127016
Trnkové křoviny2002
Suťové a roklinové lesy2204
Horské buko-jedlové lesy0101
Lesní okraje1101
Smrkové monokultury2406
Xerotermní travinobylinná společenstva0202