Records by time
Dysderidae 0-19001901-19501951-20002001-2018
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) Not endangered 18x 8x 238x 28x 292x

Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802)

Czech namešestiočka rudá
Threat levelNot endangered
Records292 nálezů, 58 kvadrátů
First record 1859, F. Prach, Prach 1866
Last record 2015 , Milan Řezáč
Distribution areaEuropean (Gr.) (Af.
Phytogeographic areaThermo, (Meso)
Původnost stanovišťclimax, (artificial)
Humidityvery dry, dry
StratumGround layer
Osvětlení stanovišť(open, semi-open), partly shaded, shaded
Hojnost výskytuscarce probably
Altitude200-500-700

Bibliography

© Ota Zimmermann

The genus Dysdera Latreille, 1804, a species-rich group of spiders that includes specialised predators of woodlice, contains several complexes of morphologically similar sibling species. Here we investigate species limits in the Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) complex by integrating phenotypic, cytogenetic and molecular data, and use this information to gain further knowledge on its origin and evolution. We describe 16 new species and redescribe four poorly known species belonging to this clade. The distribution of most of the species in the complex is limited to southern France and the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula. The species studied do not show any obvious differences in habitat preference, and some of them even occur sympatrically at certain sites. They probably feed on the same type of prey as they readily capture woodlice. On the other hand, they differ in body size, mouthparts shape, sculpturing of carapace, morphology of the copulatory organs, karyotype and DNA sequences. Experimental interspecific mating showed a partial precopulatory behavioural barrier between Dysdera erythrina and Dysdera cechica, sp. nov. Our data suggest that karyotype evolution of the complex included chromosome fusions and fissions as well as translocations (between autosomes as well as autosomes and sex chromosomes). We hypothesise that chromosome rearrangements generating reproductive incompatibility played a primary role in speciation within Dysdera complexes. Dysdera spiders are poor dispersers, and their original distribution areas (forested areas in the Mediterranean) were repeatedly fragmented during Quarternary climatic oscillations, facilitating integration of chromosome rearrangements into karyotypes by genetic drift. Sympatric occurrence of closely related species may have been promoted by prey segregation as suggested by differentiation in body size in co-occurring species. The following new species are described: D. catalonica, sp. nov., Dysdera cechica, D. dolanskyi, sp. nov., D. fabrorum, sp. nov., D. garrafensis, sp. nov., D. graia, sp. nov., D. kropfi, sp. nov., D. minairo, sp. nov., D. portsensis, sp. nov., D. pradesensis, sp. nov., D. pyrenaica, sp. nov., D. quindecima, sp. nov., D. septima, sp. nov., D. stahlavskyi, sp. nov., D. tredecima, sp. nov. and D. undecima, sp. nov.



© Ota Zimmermann
Méně známé druhy pavouků – Frontinellina frutetorum; Pirata von Noldenteich; Křižák Neoscona adianta za humny!; Ještě Porrhomma; Jak je to s původem křižáka Argiope bruennichi v Česku?; Rytířský souboj; Arachnologická exkurze – jižní Morava 2015; Ocenění arachnologové; Aktualizace rolí v České arachnologické společnosti; Konference; Česká bibliografie; Britská bibliografie; Inventarizace 2014

© Ota Zimmermann
Nine species of the genus Dysdera were found to occur in central Europe: D. adriatica Kulczyński 1897, Dysdera crocata Koch 1838, D. dubrovninnii Deeleman-Reinhold 1988, Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer 1802), Dysdera ninnii Canestrini 1868, Dysdera hungarica Kulczyński 1897, Dysdera lantosquensis Simon 1882, D. longirostris Doblika 1853, and D. taurica Charitonov 1956. Two species, D. dubrovninnii and Dysdera lantosquensis, are newly recorded from central Europe. The original description of D. hombergi (Scopoli 1763), the name used for a common species of the genus Harpactea, probably refers to Dysdera ninnii. We retain the name Dysdera ninnii as a nomen protectum. Dysdera hamulata Kulczyński 1897 appears to be a junior synonym of D. maurusia Thorell 1873. This North African species probably does not occur in central Europe, and a previous record from Slovakia is probably based on mislabeled material. A review of all species of Dysdera named from outside the Palearctic region demonstrated that D. australiensis Rainbow 1900 and D. magna Keyserling 1877 are junior synonyms of Dysdera crocata, and that D. bicolor Tatzanovski 1874 and D. solers Walckenaer 1837 are erroneously placed in the genus Dysdera; the former is likely to be an oonopid and the latter a caponiid. In central Europe, Dysdera spiders prefer xerothermic forests, particularly sites enriched by calcium. All species probably have biennal life-cycles. The karyotype of males of seven species were examined, and diploid chromosome numbers were found to be extraordinarily variable, ranging from 9 (Dysdera crocata) to 40 (D. longirostris). Karyotypes consist of holocentric chromosomes.

Statistics

By month


By altitude


By collecting method (101 used records)
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) ESMalesFemalesJuvenilesRecords
Individuální sběr1113326
Zemní past5339669
Prosev0303
?2103
 MalesFemalesJuvenilesRecords

By biotope (79 used records)
Dysdera erythrina (Walckenaer, 1802) ESMalesFemalesJuvenilesRecords
skalní stepi na jiných horninách1101
dubohabřiny1711112
výsadby listnáčů2201
Lesy2002
reliktní bory na skalách1001
A1211000201
horská vřesoviště2001
kamenité suti nižších poloh2205
kamenolomy1101
travnaté stepi5407
Lesní okraje2102
suťové a roklinové lesy3205
slaniska0301
Přirozené lesy0101
skalní stepi na vápenci4507
ovocné sady bez bylinné vegetace0101
interiéry budov0101
Acidofilní bory1001
ruderály0101
výsadby jehličnanů2204
bučiny nižších poloh2103
lesostepní doubravy107014
suché křoviny3004
horské bučiny0101
Xerotermní travinobylinná společenstva0101
 MalesFemalesJuvenilesRecords

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