Nálezy podle období
Zodariidae 0-19001901-19501951-20002001+
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) Není ohrožený 168× 95× 265×

Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837)

České jménomravčík obecný
Stupeň ohroženíNení ohrožený
Nálezy265 nálezů, 67 kvadrátů
První nález 1866, E. Bárta, Bárta 1869
Poslední nález 2019 , Filip Trnka
Areál rozšířeníEuropean - ME
Fytogeografická oblastThermo, Meso
Původnost stanovišťclimax, semi-natural
Vlhkost stanovišťvery dry, dry
StratumGround layer
Osvětlení stanovišťopen, partly shaded
Hojnost výskytuscarce probably
Nadm. výška200-950


 © Oto Zimmermann

Spiders of the Brdy Protected Landscape Area were studied. Material obtained from pitfall traps exposed during the years 2016–2017 at 15 different representative localities included a total of 4027 individuals belonging to 154 species of spiders. Cold tolerant species (e.g. Bathyphantes similis and Pocadicnemis carpatica) as well as thermophilic species (e.g. Lathys humilis and Zodarion germanicum) were recorded. The West European species Palliduphantes ericaeus reaches here the easternmost border of its  distribution, on the contrary the East European species Walckenaeria simplex has in this territory the western limit of its areal. A quarter of the recorded spider species is closely related to the original and natural habitats. Together with the published data and data from arachnological databases, the occurrence of 220 species of spiders is currently listed for the Brdy PLA, representing about 25 % of the total fauna of the Czech Republic. The results documented presence of interesting arachnofauna and confirm a high natural value of the given area.

 © Oto Zimmermann

The invertebrates of the Macocha Abyss, Moravian Karst, Czech Republic, were collected in 2007–2008 and 222 species were identified in total. The relative abundance of individual taxa of land snails, harvestmen, pseudoscorpions, spiders, millipedes, centipedes, terrestrial isopods, beetles, and ants was evaluated. The cold-adapted mountain and subterranean species inhabit the bottom and lower part of the abyss, whereas the sun-exposed rocky margins were inhabited by thermophilous species. Macocha harbors several threatened species that are absent or very rare in the surrounding habitats. In the forest landscape, the Macocha Abyss represents a natural habitat with a distinct microclimatic gradient, and is an excellent refuge area for psychrophilous as well as thermophilous species, which significantly contributes to maintenance of landscape biodiversity.

 © Ondřej Machač
There has been considerable recent interest in the biology of spiders that specialise on ants as prey, but previous studies have tended to envisage the level of adaptation as being to ants as a group. In this paper, we provide evidence that Zodarion germanicum is a spider that has dietary and venom adaptations by which it targets a particular subset of ants, the subfamily Formicinae. We reared spiders from first instar in the laboratory on three different diets: formicine ants only, myrmicine ants only and mixed (both formicine and myrmicine ants). Fitnessrelated life-history parameters were determined, and we found that the spiders on the formicine-only diet lived longer and grew at a faster rate. Lipid, carbon and nitrogen compositions of ants were analysed, but we found no evidence of formicines differing from myrmicines in macro-nutrient content. This suggests that effects on longevity and growth depended on more specific nutrients or on compounds the prey uses for defence. We investigated how efficient Zodarion germanicum was at paralysing different ants and our findings suggest that the spider’s venom is especially effective against formicines.

 © Oto Zimmermann

While the majority of the Central European landscape would be covered by forests without human influence, rocky areas form isolated, islet-like, natural, non-forest habitats. The surface of some of these non-forested areas is composed of bare bedrock or products of its erosional breakdown (without a soil layer) such as gravel, sand banks, sand dunes, scree slopes and rock outcrop habitats. These habitats harbour specialized  spider species that depend on their specific substratum and microclimate (Růžička 2000). Out of these habitats, rock walls (and scree slopes) form one of the most distinct ecological gradients of any terrestrial ecosystem (Larson et al. 1989, Růžička et al. 1995). They provide habitats with extremely warm and cold microclimatic conditions in close proximity. They also belong to habitats almost unknown until now due to the technical and practical problems of sampling.

Sandstones can form extensive systems of rocks, sometimes with a broad spectrum of meso- and microhabitats due to their very dynamic relief. Sandstone rocks are characterised by a marked contrast between forested plateau and bare vertical rock walls (Balatka and Sládek 1984). Upper margins of rocks are dry, vertical rock walls can be sun-exposed, dry and bare, or shady and humid and hence covered by mosses. Spaces with an extremely cold climate can occur in deep gorges. The aim of this study is to evaluate available data on the species composition of spider assemblages in sandstone rocks, including new data about spiders on rock walls in the Bohemian Switzerland (České Švýcarsko) National Park.



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Dle nadmořské výšky

Dle metody sběru (265 použitých nálezů)
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) ESSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Individuální sběr1615529
Zemní past440167638161

Dle biotopu (265 použitých nálezů)
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) ESSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Suché doubravy279420
Suťové a roklinové lesy3202
Suché lesní lemy1001
Výsadby listnáčů561103
Reliktní bory na skalách6204
Skály a sutě v horách0101
Lesní okraje807115
Stinné skály nižších poloh6438
Okraje silnic411453
Bučiny nižších poloh1001
Kamenité suti nižších poloh96212
Skalní stepi na vápenci18122018
Xerotermní travinobylinná společenstva3434
Lesostepní doubravy67151223
Porosty borůvek0001
Haldy a výsypky005894
Acidofilní bory1001
Suché křoviny3002
Přirozené lesy1001
Výsadby jehličnanů3405
Suché louky6106
Rašelinné bory4104
Stojaté a pomalu tekoucí vody4101