Nálezy podle období
Zodariidae 0-19001901-19501951-20002001-2021
Zodarion germanicum Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) Není ohrožený 1x 1x 168x 89x 259x
Zodarion italicum Zodarion italicum (Canestrini, 1868) Není ohrožený 2x 13x 15x
Zodarion ohridense Zodarion ohridense Wunderlich, 1973
Zodarion rubidum Zodarion rubidum Simon, 1914 Není ohrožený 21x 54x 75x

Literatura

 © Oto Zimmermann
Predators should be selected to maximize their fitness by catching the most profitable prey. As predators grow in size, they often shift their preferences to larger prey during the course of development. Alike generalist predators, specialized predators should also shift to larger prey within the pool of focal prey. Here, we have studied the natural diet of a specialized ant‐eating spider Zodarion rubidum by means of molecular methods. We tested the hypothesis of a trophic shift during postembryonic ontogenesis and if there is a difference in the diet between sexes due to sexual dimorphism. In addition, a feeding trial was performed to estimate the time at which prey DNA can be detected. The diet of all stages consisted solely of ants (nine genera), thus confirming their strict ant specialization. There was no shift in prey size or prey type during ontogenetic development, but the diversity of prey declined with age. In adult males, very few prey were detected. The feeding trial showed that prey DNA can be detected inside the spider’s gut up  to 2 weeks after feeding.

 © Oto Zimmermann

Spiders of the Brdy Protected Landscape Area were studied. Material obtained from pitfall traps exposed during the years 2016–2017 at 15 different representative localities included a total of 4027 individuals belonging to 154 species of spiders. Cold tolerant species (e.g. Bathyphantes similis and Pocadicnemis carpatica) as well as thermophilic species (e.g. Lathys humilis and Zodarion germanicum) were recorded. The West European species Palliduphantes ericaeus reaches here the easternmost border of its  distribution, on the contrary the East European species Walckenaeria simplex has in this territory the western limit of its areal. A quarter of the recorded spider species is closely related to the original and natural habitats. Together with the published data and data from arachnological databases, the occurrence of 220 species of spiders is currently listed for the Brdy PLA, representing about 25 % of the total fauna of the Czech Republic. The results documented presence of interesting arachnofauna and confirm a high natural value of the given area.



 © Oto Zimmermann
Zodarion ohridense Wunderlich, 1973 was found to be introduced in an abandoned stone quarry near Kolín in the Czech Republic. The Central European species of Zodarion are discussed.

 © Oto Zimmermann
Pavouci České republiky; Skálovka Hermanova Zelotes hermani (Chyzer, 1897) – nový druh v ČR; Erigone cristatopalpus Simon, 1884; Mravčík ohridský (Zodarion ohridense Wunderlich, 1973) (Araneae: Zodariidae) – nový druh pro Českou republiku; Něco málo ze ZOO Praha: Modisimus culicinus (Simon, 1893); Kamenožrout zelený III; Významné nálezy pavouků z ČR II./ Remarkable records of spiders from Czech Republic II.; Skákavka ryšavonohá Ballus rufipes (Simon, 1868) (Araneae: Salticidae) – nový druh pro Slovenskou republiku; Inventarizace 2015; Co se skrývá v kokonech?; 114. seminář České arachnologické společnosti – Olomouc; 20th International Congress of Arachnology; Kroniky; Sedmdesáté narozeniny Antonína Kůrky; Bucharova mísa plná pavouků; Náš táta pavouk; Česká arachnologická bibliografie; Britská bibliografie – The Newsletter 136 a 137; Nové knihy;

 © Oto Zimmermann

The invertebrates of the Macocha Abyss, Moravian Karst, Czech Republic, were collected in 2007–2008 and 222 species were identified in total. The relative abundance of individual taxa of land snails, harvestmen, pseudoscorpions, spiders, millipedes, centipedes, terrestrial isopods, beetles, and ants was evaluated. The cold-adapted mountain and subterranean species inhabit the bottom and lower part of the abyss, whereas the sun-exposed rocky margins were inhabited by thermophilous species. Macocha harbors several threatened species that are absent or very rare in the surrounding habitats. In the forest landscape, the Macocha Abyss represents a natural habitat with a distinct microclimatic gradient, and is an excellent refuge area for psychrophilous as well as thermophilous species, which significantly contributes to maintenance of landscape biodiversity.



 © Ondřej Machač
There has been considerable recent interest in the biology of spiders that specialise on ants as prey, but previous studies have tended to envisage the level of adaptation as being to ants as a group. In this paper, we provide evidence that Zodarion germanicum is a spider that has dietary and venom adaptations by which it targets a particular subset of ants, the subfamily Formicinae. We reared spiders from first instar in the laboratory on three different diets: formicine ants only, myrmicine ants only and mixed (both formicine and myrmicine ants). Fitnessrelated life-history parameters were determined, and we found that the spiders on the formicine-only diet lived longer and grew at a faster rate. Lipid, carbon and nitrogen compositions of ants were analysed, but we found no evidence of formicines differing from myrmicines in macro-nutrient content. This suggests that effects on longevity and growth depended on more specific nutrients or on compounds the prey uses for defence. We investigated how efficient Zodarion germanicum was at paralysing different ants and our findings suggest that the spider’s venom is especially effective against formicines.


 © Oto Zimmermann

While the majority of the Central European landscape would be covered by forests without human influence, rocky areas form isolated, islet-like, natural, non-forest habitats. The surface of some of these non-forested areas is composed of bare bedrock or products of its erosional breakdown (without a soil layer) such as gravel, sand banks, sand dunes, scree slopes and rock outcrop habitats. These habitats harbour specialized  spider species that depend on their specific substratum and microclimate (Růžička 2000). Out of these habitats, rock walls (and scree slopes) form one of the most distinct ecological gradients of any terrestrial ecosystem (Larson et al. 1989, Růžička et al. 1995). They provide habitats with extremely warm and cold microclimatic conditions in close proximity. They also belong to habitats almost unknown until now due to the technical and practical problems of sampling.

Sandstones can form extensive systems of rocks, sometimes with a broad spectrum of meso- and microhabitats due to their very dynamic relief. Sandstone rocks are characterised by a marked contrast between forested plateau and bare vertical rock walls (Balatka and Sládek 1984). Upper margins of rocks are dry, vertical rock walls can be sun-exposed, dry and bare, or shady and humid and hence covered by mosses. Spaces with an extremely cold climate can occur in deep gorges. The aim of this study is to evaluate available data on the species composition of spider assemblages in sandstone rocks, including new data about spiders on rock walls in the Bohemian Switzerland (České Švýcarsko) National Park.



 © Ondřej Machač
Within-species variation in body size of males and females of an ant-eating spider Zodarion rubidum was studied by analysing 15 populations across Europe. The relationship between the body size of both sexes was allometric with female-biased sexual size dimorphism. Body size of males did not change with latitude or temperature, while that of females changed significantly with temperature. Larger females were found in regions with higher temperature which is presumably a result of an optimal climate: higher temperature and longer season provide higher prey availability which accelerates the growth rate of females, leading to a larger body size. As female size varied more than male size, a sexual size dimorphism cline was observed in Zodarion rubidum. Larger sexual size dimorphism was found in warmer regions. These results thus suggest that environmental conditions (temperature) influence intraspecific variation in sexual size dimorphism in Zodarion rubidum.


 © Ondřej Machač
Based on morphological characters, two species of the genus Zodarion, Z. hamatum and Zodarion italicum, were placed into the italicum group. The aim of this study was to evaluate similarity of these two species in respect of various aspects of their natural history and karyotypes. Both species had similar phenological patterns, being univoltine, but some specimens reached adulthood the same year before winter. Both representatives had nocturnal activity and were able to capture various ant species. Zodarion hamatum seems to be specialized on Myrmicinae ants, and Zodarion italicum on Formicinae ants. Zodarion hamatum showed more agile predatory behaviour than Zodarion italicum presumably due to specialization on Myrmicinae ants, which have lower population density. Both species are generalized mimics of bicoloured (orange-dark brown) ants, such as Lasius emarginatus; they performed similar courtship and mating. The two study species exhibited contrasting reproductive strategies. Zodarion hamatum spiders had higher fecundity than Zodarion italicum as a result of larger body size but Zodarion italicum had larger eggs than Z. hamatum. This is presumably an adaptation to different availability of prey ants. Both species had the same diploid chromosome number, sex chromosome system and pattern of X chromosome heteropycnosis in testes. Results support a very close relationship between these two Zodarion species.


Fotografie

Statistiky

Dle měsíce v roce


Dle nadmořské výšky


Dle metody sběru (262 použitých nálezů)
Zemní pastSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 427 163 638 159
Zodarion italicum (Canestrini, 1868) 68 62 0 10
Zodarion rubidum Simon, 1914 81 39 0 32
Individuální sběrSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 14 13 5 25
Zodarion italicum (Canestrini, 1868) 3 3 0 2
Zodarion rubidum Simon, 1914 1 8 5 11
ProsevSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 18 3 3 8
Zodarion rubidum Simon, 1914 1 3 37 8
PozorováníSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion rubidum Simon, 1914 7 8 0 4
SmykSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 1 0 0 1
Zodarion italicum (Canestrini, 1868) 6 4 0 2
 SamciSamiceMláďataNálezy

Dle biotopu (173 použitých nálezů)
Skalní lesostepi, šípákové a teplomilné doubravySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 67 15 12 23
Skalní stepi na vápencových podkladechSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 18 12 20 18
Zodarion italicum (Canestrini, 1868) 1 0 0 1
Dubo-habrové háje a acidofilní doubravySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 24 7 4 18
Lesní okrajeSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 80 7 1 15
Xerotermy na jiných podkladechSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 6 1 0 6
Zodarion rubidum Simon, 1914 3 7 4 8
Kamenité sutěSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 9 6 2 12
Skály nižších a středních výšekSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 4 3 3 7
Xerotermní travinobylinná společenstvaSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 3 4 3 4
Zodarion italicum (Canestrini, 1868) 2 3 0 1
Zodarion rubidum Simon, 1914 2 0 0 1
Cesty, silniceSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 41 14 5 3
Zodarion rubidum Simon, 1914 10 0 0 2
Haldy a výsypkySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 0 0 589 4
Rašelinné březiny a borySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 4 1 0 4
Železniční náspySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion rubidum Simon, 1914 1 0 35 4
Reliktní bory na skalních podkladechSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 5 2 0 3
Kultury listnáčůSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 56 11 0 3
Borové monokulturySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 1 4 0 3
kamenolomySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion rubidum Simon, 1914 0 2 0 2
Smrkové monokulturySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 2 0 0 2
Lesní pasekySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 3 0 0 2
Písečné přesypySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion rubidum Simon, 1914 0 1 0 2
pískovnySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion rubidum Simon, 1914 8 5 0 2
RuderálySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 2 0 0 1
Zodarion rubidum Simon, 1914 5 5 0 1
Nízké xerofilní křovinySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion rubidum Simon, 1914 10 2 0 2
Trnkové křovinySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 3 0 0 2
Vřesoviště se smilkou, vřesem, borůvkouSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 0 0 0 1
Acidofilní borySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 1 0 0 1
Přirozené lesySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 1 0 0 1
Stojaté a pomalu tekoucí vodySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 4 1 0 1
HliníkSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion rubidum Simon, 1914 0 1 0 1
Květnaté bučinySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 1 0 0 1
Suťové lesySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 2 2 0 1
suché doubravySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 3 1 0 1
ostatní poleSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion rubidum Simon, 1914 1 0 0 1
písčinySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion rubidum Simon, 1914 0 0 0 1
Devětsilové lemy horských toků, bylinné porosty břehůSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion rubidum Simon, 1914 0 0 0 1
zahradySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion rubidum Simon, 1914 2 3 0 1
haldy a výsypkySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion rubidum Simon, 1914 0 1 0 1
Suťové a roklinové lesySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 1 0 0 1
KamenolomSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion rubidum Simon, 1914 1 0 0 1
SkládkySamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion rubidum Simon, 1914 0 1 0 1
Pískovcová skalní městaSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837) 2 1 0 1
 SamciSamiceMláďataNálezy