Nálezy podle období
Atypidae 0-19001901-19501951-20002001-2021
Atypus affinis Eichwald, 1830 Téměř ohrožený 4x 163x 45x 212x

Atypus affinis Eichwald, 1830

České jménosklípkánek hnědý
Stupeň ohroženíTéměř ohrožený
Nálezy212 nálezů, 48 kvadrátů
První nález 1941, F. Miller, Miller 1941
Poslední nález 2021
Areál rozšířeníEuropean - Me. (Af.
Fytogeografická oblast(Thermo), Meso
Původnost stanovišťclimax
Vlhkost stanovišťdry, semi-humid
StratumGround layer
Osvětlení stanovišťsemi-open, partly shaded
Hojnost výskytuscarce
Nadm. výška300-500

Literatura

 © Oto Zimmermann
During an araneological survey in the Šumava Protected Landscape Area and National Park in 2020, four spider species were discovered for the first time in the Bohemian Forest: Atypus affinis (Atypidae), Achaeridion conigerum and Phycosoma inornatum (Theridiidae), and Gongylidiellum edentatum (Linyphiidae). All species were collected at the vicinity of Rejštejn and are considered least concern (LC), critically endangered (CR) and vulnerable (VU), respectively. Along with the four species, lists of accompanying species from respective localities are provided.

 © Oto Zimmermann
A total of 114 spider species from 25 families and one harvestmen species were found during the zoological research at several sites in the Podyjí National Park during 2019. Of them, forty-one species are listed in the Red List of spiders of the Czech Republic. Four new species for the Podyjí NP were recorded – Callilepis nocturna (Linnaeus, 1758), Euryopis laeta (Westring, 1861), Phrurolithus minimus C. L. Koch, 1839 and Trichoncus auritus (L. Koch, 1869). Among the most interesting species, four critically endangered spiders – Civizelotes caucasius (L. Koch, 1866), Phrurolithus szilyi Herman, 1879, Gnaphosa modestior Kulczyński, 1897 and Eresus moravicus Řezáč, 2008 should be mentioned. Other rare species include Acartauchenius scurrilis (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1873), Agyneta fuscipalpa (C. L. Koch, 1836), Arctosa figurata (Simon, 1876), Atypus affinis Eichwald, 1830, Bassaniodes robustus (Hahn, 1832), Callilepis schuszteri (Herman, 1879), Centromerus incilium (L. Koch, 1881), Centromerus leruthi Fage, 1933, Cheiracanthium effossum Herman, 1879, Drassyllus villicus (Thorell, 1875), Euryopis quinqueguttata Thorell, 1875, Frontinellina frutetorum (C. L. Koch, 1835), Gibbaranea gibbosa (Walckenaer, 1802), Gnaphosa opaca Herman, 1879, Haplodrassus cognatus (Westring, 1861), Haplodrassus dalmatensis (L. Koch, 1866), Haplodrassus minor (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1879), Heterotheridion nigrovariegatum (Simon, 1873), Kishidaia conspicua (L. Koch, 1866), Leptorchestes berolinensis (C. L. Koch, 1846), Minicia marginella (Wider, 1834), Phrurolithus pullatus Kulczyński, 1897, Trichopterna cito (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1873), Walckenaeria simplex Chyzer, 1894, Zelotes erebeus (Thorell, 1871) and Zora manicata Simon, 1878.

 © Oto Zimmermann
A total of 114 spider species from 25 families and one harvestmen species were found during the zoological research at several sites in the Podyjí National Park during 2019. Of them, forty-one species are listed in the Red List of spiders of the Czech Republic. Four new species for the Podyjí NP were recorded – Callilepis nocturna (Linnaeus, 1758), Euryopis laeta (Westring, 1861), Phrurolithus minimus C. L. Koch, 1839 and Trichoncus auritus (L. Koch, 1869). Among the most interesting species, four critically endangered spiders – Civizelotes caucasius (L. Koch, 1866), Phrurolithus szilyi Herman, 1879, Gnaphosa modestior Kulczyński, 1897 and Eresus moravicus Řezáč, 2008 should be mentioned. Other rare species include Acartauchenius scurrilis (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1873), Agyneta fuscipalpa (C. L. Koch, 1836), Arctosa figurata (Simon, 1876), Atypus affinis Eichwald, 1830, Bassaniodes robustus (Hahn, 1832), Callilepis schuszteri (Herman, 1879), Centromerus incilium (L. Koch, 1881), Centromerus leruthi Fage, 1933, Cheiracanthium effossum Herman, 1879, Drassyllus villicus (Thorell, 1875), Euryopis quinqueguttata Thorell, 1875, Frontinellina frutetorum (C. L. Koch, 1835), Gibbaranea gibbosa (Walckenaer, 1802), Gnaphosa opaca Herman, 1879, Haplodrassus cognatus (Westring, 1861), Haplodrassus dalmatensis (L. Koch, 1866), Haplodrassus minor (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1879), Heterotheridion nigrovariegatum (Simon, 1873), Kishidaia conspicua (L. Koch, 1866), Leptorchestes berolinensis (C. L. Koch, 1846), Minicia marginella (Wider, 1834), Phrurolithus pullatus Kulczyński, 1897, Trichopterna cito (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1873), Walckenaeria simplex Chyzer, 1894, Zelotes erebeus (Thorell, 1871) and Zora manicata Simon, 1878.

 © Oto Zimmermann
Během exkurze České arachnologické společnosti konané 31. 5. – 3. 6. 2018 v CHKO Litovelské Pomoraví a v oblasti Velkého a Malého Kosíře na Prostějovsku bylo nasbíráno 188 druhů pavouků, z nichž 17 je zařazeno mezi ohrožené až kriticky ohrožené druhy. Mezi nejvýznamnější nálezy patří Atypus affinis, Arctosa maculata, Dolomedes fimbriatus,
Enoplognatha caricis, Hypsosinga heri nebo Neottiura suaveolens.


 © Oto Zimmermann

Habitat selection in sedentary, long-lived burrowing spiders is a key life-history event that directly affects their reproductive success. In this study, we analyzed the role of the chemical and physical properties of soil in habitat selection by threatened temperate burrowing spiders. We examined 296 burrows of three Atypus spp. and three Eresus spp. at 68 sites in Czechia. We found that the study species were associated with soils that have high or very high cation exchange capacity, which allows the presence of a stable nd humid microclimate in their burrows. We found that specific bedrock types can be used as predictors of the presence of particular study species. All Eresus spp. avoided compacted soils. However, when present in soils with very low penetration resistance, they were limited to sites with high soil cohesion. The burrows of all study species were located at well-drained sites. The study species seemed to be selective for a steppe-like character of their microhabitat but not necessarily for its southward orientation. We found the study species even at sites where steppes were present in the early 1950s and that underwent later afforestation but not extensive landscaping or plowing. What types of disturbances can be sustained by the study species and how long it takes the decreased populations to recover after, e.g., trampling associated with grazing, remain to be investigated.



 © Ondřej Machač
Pavouci České republiky; Nový druh třesavky pro území České republiky, aneb další synantrop za dveřmi (nebo před?); Zajímavý nález tropické maloočky v Hranicích na Moravě; Katalogy pavouků a evidence prvonálezů; Snovačka půdní (Steatoda triangulosa) ve volné přírodě v ČR; Poznámka k výskytu listovníků Philodromus margaritatus a P. fuscomarginatusNová lokalita sklípkánka hnědého (Atypus affinis); Zoologické dny Brno 2017; Česko-britský arachnologický seminář v Praze; Exkurze Mohelenský mlýn 2017; Arachnologická exkurze Mostecko 2017; Přírodovědecký spolek Arachne; Obsah původního Arachnologického spravodaje v minulosti; Čestní členové České arachnologické společnosti; Arachnologická knihovna Jiřího Bauma; Česká bibliografie 2017; Britská bibliografie – The Newsletter 138; Inventarizace 2016; Pokyny pro autory

 © Oto Zimmermann

Aim Three species of primitive spiders of the genus Atypus occur in European xerothermic habitats, where they live in burrows. The aim of this study is to explain their distribution by investigating environmental variables at sites where they occur in central Europe.

Location Over 50 sites in central Europe, Czech Republic.

Methods Data on climatic, edaphic and vegetational parameters were collected from more than 50 sites. Phytocenological data were processed using Ellenberg’s indicator values.

Results Atypus muralis was found to occur almost exclusively in dry grassland (Festucion valesiacae), exposed to a continental microclimate. Atypus affinis usually occurred in dry sparse forests (Genisto germanicae–Quercion) that provide an Atlantic microclimate. Atypus piceus occurred in dry grassland (Bromion erecti) or forest fringes (Geranion sanguinei) characterized by an intermediate microclimate. Atypus piceus and Atypus muralis were restricted to agglutinate calcareous soils.

Main conclusions Our results show that Atypus species colonized sites with different continentality in central Europe. These differences correspond to differences among their probable glacial refugia. Atypus muralis and Atypus piceus occur in habitats with a markedly continental climate, and are restricted to calcareous agglutinate soils that more efficiently buffer temperature and humidity extremes. Habitats of Atypus muralis and Atypus piceus are threatened by overgrowth of vegetation after a recent decline in grazing and by the decalcification of the landscape. However, habitats of Atypus affinis are stable in the present central European climate.



 © Oto Zimmermann

Compared with araneomorph spiders, karyotypes of the spider infraorder Mygalomorphae are nearly unknown. In this study we investigated karyotypes of European species of the genus Atypus (Atypidae). The male karyotype of Atypus muralis and Atypus piceus comprises 41 chromosomes, whereas female complements contain 42 chromosomes. On the other hand, both sexes of Atypus affinis possess 14 chromosomes only. It is the lowest diploid number found in mygalomorph spiders so far. Furthermore, obtained data suggest X0 sex chromosome system in Atypus piceus, Atypus muralis and neo-XY system in Atypus affinis. Karyotypes of all three Atypus species are composed of biarmed chromosomes only. Thus they differ significantly from the karyotype of A. karschi , the only other species of this genus studied so far. Its karyotype was reported to be composed of acrocentric chromosomes and possesses X1X20 sex chromosome system. All this shows that unlike in most genera of araneomorph spiders, mygalomorphs of the genus Atypus exhibit unusual diversity in the number, morphology of chromosomes, and the sex chromosome system. Considering high number of chromosomes being plesiomorphic character in spiders, then karyotypes of Atypus muralis and Atypus piceus represent ancestral situation and that of Atypus affinis being derived by multiple fusions. Karyotype differences in Atypus correspond with morphological differences, namely the number of segments of the posterior lateral spinnerets. Thus in contrast to published hypothesis, the 3-segmented posterior lateral spinnerets of Atypus affinis should present a derived state.



Fotografie

Statistiky

Dle měsíce v roce


Dle nadmořské výšky


Dle metody sběru (212 použitých nálezů)
Atypus affinis Eichwald, 1830 LCSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Pozorování1402
Zemní past1477474
Individuální sběr5101224
Neurčeno2114594
Smyk20214
Prosev15014
 SamciSamiceMláďataNálezy

Dle biotopu (212 použitých nálezů)
Atypus affinis Eichwald, 1830 LCSamciSamiceMláďataNálezy
Zahrady1001
Suché doubravy308016
Suťové a roklinové lesy0101
Reliktní bory na skalách292212
Bučiny nižších poloh0011
Neurčeno301712127
Paseky0032
Lesní okraje3003
Porosty borůvek4154
Stinné skály nižších poloh1001
Lesostepní doubravy453015
Lesy2001
Acidofilní bory222113
Kamenité suti nižších poloh2002
Xerotermní travinobylinná společenstva1001
Suché louky18008
Výsadby listnáčů0101
Skalní stepi na vápenci3003
 SamciSamiceMláďataNálezy